Shusterman sees the distinction between understanding and interpretation not as ‘all understanding is interpretation,’ nor a metaphysical state of being (ontological), but as relational or functional. The relationship can be described as, “ grounds and guides , while enlarges, validates, or corrects ” (p122). As he points out if understanding is interpretation and we could never understand anything without an interpretation, then “how could we ever the itself?” (ibid.). Hirsh (1976) agrees and urges that when the person interprets they first are trying to match what they sense with what they already know in order to first understand before and interpretation and explanation can begin. Validation is a factor in interpretation and can be placed within systematic process of > construction of > > validation. When validation is achieved it is “only with respect to known hypotheses and known facts” (Hirsch, 1967, p170). Palmer (1969) points out that in itself understanding is a preliminary act of interpretation from which future interpretations are built.